Latest Publications

Scalability and Containers

During Container World 2016, I delivered a keynote at Open Container Night where I offered a high level overview of three prevailing Container Orchestration Engines (COEs). That presentation included this slide to illustrate that there are many factors that need to be considered when finding the right COE for you:



This slide was innocently posted out of context on Twitter, and soon began a debate about scalability of these various systems. I was not intending for this to be used as a benchmark reference. Some recognized that the flowchart is supposed to be amusing. The truth is that practically nobody creates a single cluster of 10,000 physical servers (x16 CPU = 160,000 cores). I would never do that. Serious network constraints would surface before reaching that scale. None of today’s COE systems are actually intended for this imaginary use case. Large systems are broken down into smaller zones using federation or shards, and tend to be balanced among different geographical regions for fault tolerance, and disaster recovery reasons. Giant flat networks simply don’t work well.

An unfortunate side effect of this discussion was the misguided idea that Kubernetes could not scale beyond 200 hosts. In fact, version 1.2 of Kubernetes is known to scale to 1000 kubelets, and it’s getting better and better. In fact, when you get into the large cluster range of hundreds of hosts, you need a system to manage automation, data replication, and a scheme for gracefully handling node failures. These are all bases that Kubernetes has covered.

The Numbers, Explained

The internet loves numbers, and we all seem to love a debate. The numbers on my slide were not intended to start a debate, nor were they meant to indicate that there are any absolute limits to the availability of each of these options. I’m trying to explain that if your IT shop has a few racks full of servers (<200), that you’re probably going to like Kubernetes because of the declarative style of defining the desired state of your apps. If you own millions of dollars worth of servers (>1000 servers) or a whole data center full of hardware approaching a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars (>10,000 servers) then you probably have the skills and resources to do whatever you want, regardless which COE you pick. I know a few shops like this, and when they prefer Mesos, it’s usually because Hadoop is a framework that can coexist concurrently with Marathon, and others each taking different aspects of their big data workloads on a common set of physical infrastructure. Kubernetes offers an elegant approach for a variety of workloads. It’s modeled after Borg at Google, which runs enormous workloads. If you need your cluster to scale to more than 1000 nodes on a single master, then you’re probably doing it wrong. When used properly, any of the COE’s I mentioned can work at this scale.

In my talk I did not offer any guidance about what to use when you only have a few servers. I would definitely not attempt to use Mesos at a small scale like that. Kubernetes offers features like replication and fault recovery that can restart containers upon failure. If you like being able to keep a mental model of where everything is, you might prefer a more manual approach with Docker Swarm. If you have other ways to deal with what happens when things go wrong, or want total control over everything, you might decide not to use any COE at all. Each of these COE’s are constantly evolving, so I can’t say for certain which one will remain the prevailing popular choice over time.

Application Scalability

Your selected COE is not the factor that determines how your app will scale. Your application architecture and implementation will determine that. Every app is different, and each will have it’s own constraints and bottlenecks that make scaling it challenging. Using containers and COE systems like Docker Swarm, Kubernetes, or Apache Mesos help simplify the use of a microservices application architecture, which can allow many applications to reach scale that they can’t when using a more coarse grouping of your various application components. Note that microservices architecture is not the best for all applications. Let’s say for example that you have an application that acts on huge volumes of data that need to move around between various services. In that case, the load on your network will be considerable. Throughput between your various microservices will quickly surface as a bottleneck. If your working set of data exceeds your memory capacity, chances are that I/O throughput of your storage systems will be critically important to your application performance. True scalability comes from breaking down your various problem sets such that each server is working on a small part of the problem, and work can be distributed among many workers that advance through the problem in parallel. It may also come from accessing your data in place, and not constantly moving it back and forth across your network. At the end of the day, it comes down to understanding where the work happens inside your software, and making that work as efficient as possible. If your application is not designed to scale well, then you can’t really expect it to, no matter what COE you task with managing it.

SCALE 14x: Docker, Kubernetes, and Mesos: Compared.


I had the pleasure of giving this talk at SCaLE 14x. I was impressed with the audience at over 200 in attendance for this breakout session. It’s clear that containers are the new hotness, and we all want the inside track on how to make the best use of them. This talk guides you through which of the container orchestration systems are best for you based on various criteria about you, your organization, and your workloads. The slides are available, and the talk was recorded. As soon as the video is posted I will link to it here as well. I expect the post processing to happen in a couple of weeks, so stay tuned.


Software is a Liquid: The Future of the Cloud

Screen Shot 2015-11-19 at 8.52.27 PMThis week I presented a session at Rackspace SOLVE in Los Angeles. I discuss the future of technology, as it pertains to the Cloud. I assert that software is actually a liquid, and explain how containing it can scale. Enjoy!